History of Optical Microscope

Optical lens and Optics that existed from BC

The microscope is also regarded as a kind of magnifying glass, the lens has a long history from BC. Lens was made by polishing crystal, and it has been discovered from the ruins of Iran. The lens was used to collect solar heat, the applications of this era, it seems the doctor had used to burn the wound closed.
 It was used as a magnifying glass after the 11th century. Aruhazen scientist Arabic (Egypt) is in the "optical" his book, there was a presentation describing the structure of the eye lens that looks optics principles and compensate for the vision in it. The book had been translated into Latin, to be read in a number of monks, manufacture of the lens by the monks became popular throughout Europe. In the 13th century, was used as a magnifying glass (leading stone) placed directly on top of the book.
 Also found describing the lens to evolve, in Venice, Italy, and from becoming like glass colorless and transparent, unlike colored glass until it is made ??active, that there were glasses already in the 13th century are.


Invention of the microscope in the Netherlands at the end of the 16th century

 Janssen parents, the Netherlands around 1590, has the invention of the microscope by combination of the two convex. They looked through a telescope in reverse, and was discovered by chance. They used the Kepler telescope, which is now commonly used as an astronomical telescope and it shows reversed image.
 Robert Hooke, as the famous Hooke's law, has published a sketch of microorganismsby using the microscope in the 17th century. Magnification of the microscope at that time is said to have been most about 150x. On the other hand, Leeuwenhoek, Dutch hook introduced to the British Royal Society, has achieved a magnification of 200x or more in a single lens microscope with polished. It was kind of like a lens with a prepared slide (glass plate for observation for fixing the sample) this microscope preparations, of Leeuwenhoek. Around this time, materials for the glass lens has not yet been well studied, and two pieces fit lenses appear to be distorted just one sheet, the image is no longer visible.


Establishment of the modern microscope

 It was from the 19th century, The current microscope that combines multiple lenses started evolving. Carl Zeiss, Germany, realized magnification of 6-700x with Shot, glass blower, and Abbe, physicists, and made ??a significant contribution to medicine and biology. Performance is improved almost to the limit of the optical theory, the end of the 19th century.
 Then, the device and lighting, such as polarized illumination, the sample processing techniques such as fluorescence has been developed, there was an extension of the optics. In that it is possible to know the three-dimensional structure (see more clearly) to raise the resolution, confocal microscope began to be studied in the late 1950s.


Beyond the optics

 On the other hand, more than using light (image performance that is clearly visible even when expanded) the resolution of the optical microscope is limited, theoretically. Hideyo Noguchi could not considered the cause of yellow fever is virus, because of the lack of the spatial resolution of the optical microscope. Thus, electron microscopy (transmission type), appeared by replacing light into electrons. Theoretical spatial resolution of electron microscopy is 1000 times higher than optical microscopy. It can observe 1nm structurel. Developed in Germany in the 1930s, a transmission electron microscope, in 1938 before the war, had already been released from Siemens.
 In the same electron microscope, the principles of scanning electron microscope are different. Rather than enlarge the image in the lens, as thin needle tip (probe) scan the surface of the sample, it can be said that it is the prototype of a scanning probe microscope. Its development prototype was made ??from the 1960s.
 The first scanning probe microscope (SPM) was scanning tunneling microscopy(STM), that was developed by IBM in 1983 and able to measure the image of atoms.
 After that, SPM also utilize the atomic force and scan the atomic information by using X-ray diffraction or reflected electrons. Also development of computer helps the device control and image processings.
 In optics, scanning probe type has been developed. Recently, a microscopy that utilize the near-field light has been being developed.